Advanced driving assistance system

1﹒Introduction to Advanced Driving Assistance System

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)  is a key technology that has been actively developed by major car manufacturers in recent years. The main function at this stage is not to control the vehicle, but to provide the driver with information about the working status of the vehicle and the static and dynamic environment changes outside the vehicle for the driverr to take countermeasures early.

Common driving assistance systems include:Blind Spot Detection System, Parking Aid System, Rear Crash Collision Warning System, Lane Departure Warning System, Adaptive Front-lighting System, Night Vision System, Adaptive Cruise Control System, Pre Crash System, (Emergency) Brake assist, and even more functional system composition.


2﹒ADAS main working components include the:

Sensor

It is used to sense and receive changes in the environment outside the car, and use corresponding sensors according to different detection distances.
Common sensors include:Tof, Infrared, Ultrasoni, Radar, Lidar

Processor

Also known as ECU (Electronic Control Unit). It collects the signals transmitted by the sensors, analyzes and processes them and transmits the instructions to the actuators. Processors include: Microprocessor (MPU), Digital Signal Processor (DSP) , Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

Actuator 

After receiving the instructions from the processor, the corresponding device can execute operations, such as automatic braking and warning message prompts.


3﹒The most commonly used sensors in ADAS are as follows:

Photographic lens
Inexpensive and light, but not suitable for harsh environments.

Radar sensor
Lightweight, and divided into infrared, ultrasonic, millimeter wave radar.

Optical radar sensor
Expensive, high precision, must be equipped with a powerful processor.

In the future, ADAS will use a variety of sensors to process environmental sensing, and communicate with each other to complement a single sensor to measure dead angles or environmental interference. There will be no single sensor to complete all the work.



4﹒Fully automatic driving class classification

Six levels are defined by the "Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers)" from assisted driving to fully automated driving. Level 0 is completely manual operation without any automatic function, and level 1 to level 5 depends on its auxiliary functions. The operation mode is divided into partial driving to fully automatic driving.


5﹒Classification and number of sensors required

Higher levels of ADAS require a larger number of sensors to communicate with each other. In particular, the demand for radar and automotive lenses has grown the most. Due to its excellent sensing characteristics, optical factories are also actively reducing the weight of LiDAR components. 




6﹒Comparison of sensor characteristics

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7﹒Conclusion

Many car manufacturers have recently launched Level 3 self-driving cars. The CEO of Tesla even said that he has mastered the development of level 5 fully autonomous driving technology. The main  business opportunities behind it are sensor development and perception fusion system single-chip SoC, vehicle positioning and High-precision graphics, 5G transmission, and AI decision-making control. From the perspective of sensor and 5G transmission related component technologies, it is not difficult to find that optical film plays a pivotal role in its self-driving car system, especially in  Sensor design and optical film application of photographic lenses and optical radars.




references

[1]Under the Hood: What Audi A8 Has Taught Us,EE Times

[2]Trends in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) Regulations,Automotive Research & Testing Center (ARTC)

[3]Sensorfelder der Umfeldüberwachung,Audi